Many protocols can operate at multiple layers.
Nebulous is Industry’s consensus to where many protocols best reside.
  Network+   OSI Model   Ports   IEEE   Cables   IPv4   IPv6   Security+  

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)          Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Encapsulation      OSI Model TCP/IP Model Hardware Protocols/Applications


Data Streams
(Upper Layer Data)
  

SDU

(MTU = Max. Transfer Unit)
7 Application Application Computer
Device





Content Switch
Gateway

HTTPS, TELNET, SMTP, POP3, PGP, IRC, FTP
DHCP, DNS🗊, SNMP, IPAM, SIEM, NNTP, NTP, IMAP4
SMB, RDP, VNC, SSTP, LDAP, MGCP, RTSP SOAP, SCAP
6 Presentation SSL, TLS, ASCII, GIF, MPEG, JPEG, MIME, MIDI
WEP, WPA, WPA2, Hash-Functions, Kerberos, ICA
TKIP, PKI, Data Compression, Encryption / Decryption
5 Session iSNS, NetBIOS, Handshaking link, Tunneling rules
API's, SIP, SAP, SQL, NFS, RPC, SOCKS, SSH, DLP
Load Balancers, SSL Accelerator, (Controls persistent connections)
TCP=Segment
UDP=Datagram

(MTU=1500 bytes)
4 Transport Transport TCP, UDP, DCCP, NAC, 802.1x, RTP, SRTP, WAF
SCTP, IPX/SPX, NBF, NAS, SAN, iSCSI, RADIUS, TACACS+
AH, ESP, Defines Ports & directs Send/Resend, Proxy Service
Packet

↑   PDU   ↓
3 Network Internet Routers, Firewalls, UTM
Smart Switches, VPNConcentrator
QoS, (Logical addressing)
ACL, IPSec, EAP, IGMP, RIP, RIPv2, IGP, EGP, BGP, DMZ
VPN, BootP, CARP, OSPF, MPLS, VRRP, EIGRP, IS-IS, WPS
IPv4, IPv6, NDP, ARP, APIPA, NAT,PAT, GRE,
ICMP, PING,Tracert
Frame = 46 to 1500
Jumbo = 9000 bytes
2 Data Link LLC Network
Access
Access Points(WAP), WLC, VMs
Switches, Bridges, WI-FI
NICs, (Physical addressing)
RARP, SLIP, PPP, PPTP, L2TP, VLAN, VTP, 802.1q, LWAPP
ATM, CSMA/CD (CA), STP, RSTP, SPB, IDS/IPS, NIDS/HIDS
PAP, CHAP, FDDI, PRI, IEEE 802, Ethernet
, MAC address
MAC
Bits
(Transistors)
1 Physical RS-232, Hub, Repeater, Converter, UPS
MDF, Coax/Fiber/Wireless, Transceiver
CSU/DSU, Connectors, Modem, PDU
PwrLn, 10XBase-X, Token Ring, USB, RFID, Bluetooth, Infrared
EM, Z-Wave, Ant+, NFC,
Antennas, TDMA, GSM, CDMA
LTE, 1G, 4G, 5G, DSL, ISDN, SONET/SDH, Satellite
                  DEMARCATION POINT
               ┗━━━ Transmission/Reception
                                      (Network medium)
             


Popular mnemonic reminders:
Dead Ninja Turtles Smell Pretty Awful               Please Do Not Touch Steve's Pet Alligator
A Priest Saw Ten Nuns Doing Pushups             Please Do Not Trust Sales Person’s Answers
All People Seem To Need Data Processing      Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away


YOUTUBE - OSI Reference Model Layers

Introduction to Ethernet - Professor Messer


Useful Images
CLICK 
FOR 
OSI Model Architecture OSI Model OSI Hardware OSI Details OSI Model Infastructure Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ab) Frame Structure OSI Network Stack OSI Model Stacks OSI Layer 10 by Gvseostud
OSI Model Functions OSI Model Layers OSI Hardware/Software OSI Structure OSI Media OSI Data OSI Model Functions OSI Model Pathways OSI Encapsulation OSI Layer 9
OSI Transmit Receive OSI Model for Networks OSI Layers OSI Layer Relationships OSI-TCP/IP-DOD Layers OSI Layers OSI Simple Model OSI-TCP/IP Models OSI Mapping OSI Ethernet OSI Layer 7
 LARGER
 PICTURE

* Internet Explorer 11 or Google Chrome required for mouseover pop-up dialog boxes to format (display) correctly

Ethernet Frame


Preamble
(7 bytes)
     Destination
Address
(6 bytes)
                      Frame
Type
(2 bytes)
                                                        Frame
Check
Sequence
(4 bytes)
                MAC      MAC    VLAN                                                               PAD   CRC 
   
Start-of-
Frame
Delimiter
(1 byte)
           
Source
Address
(6 bytes)

                                       
801.1q Tagging
VLAN / QoS Tag

Data
(n-bytes)


                       
Used if
less than
64 bytes


   
 


 



IEEE 802.3 standard defined the minimum Ethernet frame size as 64 bytes, and the maximum
as 1518 bytes. The maximum was later increased to 1522 bytes to allow for VLAN tagging.

     The router allows the computers to communicate with the devices in the other networks Routers separate broadcast domains Connecting to the Internet through a router with NAT allows the router to use the single public IP address and a series of UDP ports to share the connection
Switches experience fewer frame collisions because switches create collision domains for each connection (micro segmentation)             Switches separate collision domains     Switches increase available network bandwidth. Switches reduce workload on individual computers
Broadcast Domains and Collision Domains

Goodput = Data without overhead protocol bits

Disclaimer: All pictures used with my webpages have been
obtained from internet image collections or linked sites, and the use
of which is intended to instruct and to assist all students. Images and
or sites are presented for informational purposes only and do not
constitute endorsement of any websites or other sources. I disclaim
any liability in connection with the use or misuse of this information.
I will link images to any valid request.

Under Construction
Under ConstructionUnder ConstructionUnder Construction
Under Construction

Click here to add this page to your favorites


Home Page | ScienceLinks | Network+ | OSI Model | Ports | IEEE | IPv4 | E-Mail Me
Pending work to be published

Follow me on Twitter Follow me on Facebook     Visit My YouTube Channel     View my Linkedin Profile     Follow me on pinterest

top