Useful Images

   IEEE 802.11 Standards Timeline   
   IEEE 802 Standards    
   Do not overlap signal channels   
   2.4 GHz Signal Overlap Avoidance   
   Wireless Frequency Ranges   
   Wireless 5GHz Channels   

IEEE = Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Straight-Through, Crossover, and Rollover Cables          Copper Cabling

Wireless Standards  - Technologies           Troubleshooting Wireless

IEEE 802.11 Standard for Wireless LAN
Standard Date Transmission
Speed (Mbps)
Max. Range
Max # of supported
MIMO Streams
802.11a 1999   54 5  23 Channels
12 non-overlapping
(100 feet)
1 Business Use
802.11b 1999   11 2.4 50
(150 feet)
1 Home Use
802.11g 2003   54 2.4 11 Channels
 3 non-overlapping
(150 feet)
1 Backward
with 802.11b
802.11n 2009 150 up to 600 2.4 or 5 70
Up to 400
if MIMO used
4 Fastest max.
speed & best
signal range
802.11ac 2013 866.7 per channel
(150 feet)
866.7 Mbps / all MIMOs used
Uses standardized
MU-MIMO used
802.11ad 2012     6.7Gbps 60 3.3
(11 feet)
N/A Ultra fast
802.11ah 2016 Up to 347
Internet of Things(IoT)
0.9 (Z-Wave) 200 to 1000? 4 Below 1GHz
extended range
Wi-Fi ~ 1000m
802.1 1980 Overview and architecture of LANs
802.1d 1990 STP - Spanning Tree Protocol
802.1w 2001 RSTP - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
802.1p 1995 QoS method for assigning priority to packets traversing a network. It works with the MAC
(media access control) header; A three-bit Priority Code Point inside the 32 bit 802.1Q tag
802.1q 1998 Supports virtual LANs (VLANs) - specifies how frames are tagged
(Default or native VLAN has no header tag)
802.1x 2001 Enables user to be port-based authenticated by a central authority; standard for
encapsulating Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) communications over a LAN
802.2 Disbanded Logical Link Control
802.3 1983 Ethernet CSMA/CD Access Method
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection)
802.3ad X Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for EtherChannel
802.3af 2003 Up to 15.4 W of DC with 12.95 W at device (PoE) standard
802.3at 2009 Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+) 30 Watts w/ 25.5 W at powered device
802.3u 1995 100Base-T, Cat5 UTP, Distance=100m "Fast Ethernet"
802.3ab 1999 1000Base-T, Cat5 UDP, Cat6 UDP, Distance=100 "GigaBit Ethernet"
802.3z 1998 1000Base-LX, Single-mode Fiber, Wavelength=1,300m, Distance= 5,000m
Fiber Optics - 1000Base-SX, Multi-mode Fiber, Wavelength=850m, Distance=550m
802.3an 2006 10GBase-T, Cat5e - Cat6 - Cat7 UDP, Distance 100m but Cat6=55m
802.4 Disbanded Token Bus LAN
802.5 Disbanded Token Ring LAN
802.6 Disbanded Metropolitan Area Networks (DQDB)
802.7 Disbanded Broadband TAG
802.8 Disbanded Fiber Optic TAG
802.9 Disbanded Isochronous LAN
802.10 Disbanded Security
802.11 1997 Wireless LAN (WLAN)
802.11i 2004 Deals more with wireless security than connectivity; TKIP, WPA2
802.11w 2014 Encrypts some important management frames to block disassociation,
deauthentication, and channel switching announcements, etc.
802.12 Disbanded Demand Priority
802.13 N/A Unlucky number, nobody wants it; Reserved for Fast Ethernet development?
802.14 Disbanded Cable Modem
802.15 2002 Wireless PAN ~ Bluetooth
802.16 2001 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) - for metropolitan area networks (MANs)
~ Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
Refered to as 4G with LTE, 30 to 40 Mbps, 10 mile range
802.17 Disbanded Resilient Packet Ring
802.18 X Radio Regulatory TAG - Local and Metropolitan Area Network Standards
802.19 X Coexistence
802.20 2008 Mobile Broadband Wireless
802.21 2008 Media Independent Handover - between IEEE 802 networks and Cellular networks
802.22 2010 Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN)
802.23 Disbanded Emergency Services
802.24 X Vertical Applications TAG   - Standards          IEEE Standards Association

Useful Images

   Ethernet Wire Connector Punch Down   
   Networking - Cable Configuration   
   T-568A, T-568B Standard   
   Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat6a Cables   
   Network Cables   
   Cable Sheathing   
   Cat5e Shielding   
Twisted Pair Cables
Category Network Type ISO
Max Speed Frequency Description Max.
2 Telephone B 4 Mbps 1 MHz Used during the 1980s -
3 Ethernet
C 10 Mbps 16 MHz Formerly, CAT 3 used for legacy
network and phone wiring; 1990s
4 IBM token ring N/A 16 Mbps 20 MHz CAT 4 can also be used
for 10 Mbps Ethernet
5 Fast Ethernet
D 1000 Mbps 100 MHz Was widely used for Gigabit
networks; crosstalk issues
5e Gigabit Ethernet
D 1 Gbps 100 MHz Higher testing standards than 5
Better EMI protection
6 Gigabit Ethernet

10 Gigabit Ethernet
E 1 Gbps

10 Gbps

250 MHz Stronger crosstalk
specifications than 5e
Plastic core separating pairs


6a 10 Gigabit Ethernet
EA 10 Gbps 500 MHz Augmented, shielded,
increased cable diameter
7 10 Gigabit Ethernet
   *(RJ-45 to GG-45
F 10 Gbps 600 MHz All pairs shielded for higher
noise resistance. GG45 & TERA
7a 10 Gigabit Ethernet FA 10+ Gbps 1000 MHz May support emerging 40 Gbps 100m
8 40 Gigabit Ethernet EA/FA 25/40 Gbps X CAT 8 supports a signaling
rate of 1200 to 2000? MHz.
Flat cable under carpet standard.

   Bandwidth, throughput increases with MHz   
   Fiber Optic Polish Types   
   Fiber Optic Connectors 1   
   Fiber Optic Connectors 2   
   Fiber Optic Connectors 4   
   Fiber Optic Connectors 3   
Bandwidth Cable Type Maximum
10Base-2 10Mbps Thin coaxial RG58 50Ω (ThinNet) 200m
10Base-5 10Mbps Thick coaxial RG8 50Ω (ThickNet) 500m
10Base-T 10Mbps Cat 3 / Cat 5 UTP 100m
10Base-FL 10Mbps Multi-mode fiber 1000-2000m
100Base-TX 100Mbps Cat 5 UTP 100m
100Base-TX 200Mbps Cat 5 UTP 100m
100Base-FX 100Mbps Multi-mode fiber 400m (half duplex)
2Km(full duplex)
100Base-FX 200Mbps Multi-mode fiber 2Km
1000Base-T 1Gbps Cat 5e UTP 100m
1000Base-TX 1Gbps Cat 6 UTP
(Commertial Failure)
1000Base-CX 1Gbps Special copper 150Ω 25m
1000Base-SX 1Gbps Multi-mode fiber 550m
1000Base-LX 1Gbps Single-mode fiber
Multi-mode fiber
10GBase-T 10Gbps Cat 6a / Cat 7 UTP (Cat 6 = 55m)
10GBase-LX 10Gbps Multi-mode fiber 100m
10GBase-LX 10Gbps Single-mode fiber 10Km
10GBase-LR 10Gbps Single-mode fiber 10Km
10GBase-SR 10Gbps Multi-mode fiber 300m
10GBase-ER 10Gbps Single-mode fiber 40Km
40GBase-T 40Gps Cat 8 30m
40GBase-SR4 40Gps Multi-mode fiber 100m
40GBase-LR4 40Gps Single-mode fiber 10Km
100GBase-SR4 100Gbs Multi-mode fiber 100m
100GBase-LR4 100Gbs Single-mode fiber 10Km
100GBase-ER4 100Gbs Single-mode fiber 40Km
Trunk Carrier Transmission Rates
Carrier Level
Signal Level
Line Data Speed DS0 Lines
(Voice channels)
- DS0 64 Kbps 1
(Integrated Services Digital Network)
- 128 Kbps 2
T1 DS1 1.544 Mbps 24
E-1 (Europe) - 2.048 Mbps 32
T-1C (Bonded T1) DS1C 3.152 Mbps 48
T2 DS2 6.312 Mbps 96
E-3 (Europe) - 34.368 Mbps 512
(16 E1 circuits)
T3 DS3 44.736 Mbps 672
(28 T1 circuits)
T4 DS4 274.176 Mbps 4032
Optical Carrier Transmission Rates
(Synchronous optical networking)
Standard Name
Carrier Level
Data Rate Voice
STS-1     OC-1              51.84 Mbps 810  
STS-3     OC-3            155.52 Mbps 2,430  
STS-9     OC-9            466.56 Mbps 7,290  
STS-12     OC-12            622.08 Mbps 9,720  
STS-18     OC-18            933.15 Mbps 14,580  
STS-24     OC-24 1.24 Gbps 19,440  
STS-36     OC-36 1.87 Gbps 29,160  
STS-48     OC-48 2.49 Gbps 38,880  
STS-96     OC-96 4.98 Gbps 77,760  
STS-192     OC-192 9.95 Gbps 155,520  
STS-256     OC-256 13.27 Gbps 207,360  
STS-384     OC-384 19.91 Gbps 311,040  
STS-768     OC-768 39.81 Gbps 622,080  
STS-1536     OC-1536 79.63 Gbps 1,244,160  
STS-3072     OC-3072 159.25 Gbps   2,488,320  

Leased Lines        Optical Fiber        Fiber Optic Connectors - Professor Messer

Useful Images

   Labeled, color coded networks increase clarity   
   Concentrated purpose leads to higher efficiency   
   Many Server closets/rooms resemble Spaghetti   
   Safety concerns plague these   
    troubleshooting nightmares  
   Resolving these discombobulations is a daunting task   
   Wiring minefields jeopardize the health of an organization   
   Professionalism is a state of quality over quantity   
   Time and money are required to patch it all up   

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